Friday, July 5, 2013



Start Date: 04/16/2013


In this course, the learner will research and evaluate the information systems and technology tools necessary to support the individual knowledge worker in today’s environment. This analysis of the systems and tools will be conducted from the viewpoint of the program domains and how the individual worker must be supported to create a productive and efficient environment. The scope of this course will include hardware and software product considerations for management
Course Competencies
  • Trace the historical development of the concept of knowledge workers and the supporting information system.
  • Analyze how knowledge workers use information systems at the individual level.
  • Evaluate the infrastructure components of a knowledge worker information system.
  • Integrate methods of support that enable individual knowledge workers to advance their organizations.
  • Examine trends and best practices in knowledge worker information systems.

Week 2 Reflections

Ethics in organizations
The discussion about ethics in organizations (Kroenke, 2011) reminded me of my job search when I was younger. Kroenke (2011) discusses an example about ethical prejudices that may not occur if a system is designed to handle the skills needed to obtain a job and without bias.  I have dealt with several difficulties in my life that have been about ethical standards in information technology organizations.  When I first began looking to obtain a job in IT, I was turned down many times.  In not so many words or actual physical proof, I felt discriminated against either because I am female, was very young when I initially tried looking, or Hispanic.  Most of the positions I received from these businesses in the beginning were receptionist, file clerk, and assistant secretary.  I was told to work my way up, but that proved to be very difficult because many times I was not given a second glance.  These organizations did not give me a chance to work in IT even though I had a technical resume, certificates, recommendations, and references from colleges that I worked in to prove I could work in a help desk support role or environment.  It wasn’t until I turned 24 that I was exposed to a company that actually wanted to test my skills in web development, and I was hired instantly.  If there was a system that was unbiased, I think the opportunities would have been easier for me to obtain a position earlier on.

Record keeping and data-warehousing
According to McNurlin, Sprague, & Bui (2009), both perspectives of data and technology is a main focus in information systems.  In my current position, information is a very powerful resource as a product support technician.  Our team manages data as well as develops and maintains the systems for our clients to integrate their advertisements on the web.  Our team has a holistic way of thinking about sharing data while the other teams keep their resources pretty much to themselves in the organization.  Although there are reasons for that method of thinking, many of our responsibilities become overwhelming because the other teams do not always take advantage of the systems that we developed for them and will tend to ask us directly for help or information.  So although creating an infrastructure is important to the organization, how does one get people to use and abide by it?

Productivity and performance
This leads to Davenport’s (2005) discussion on management and evaluations on productivity and performance.  Davenport provides examples about the different social factors, management styles, and technologies that are used in several groups from an organization.  There is a compilation of responsibilities that are required from each team to make an organization successful.  Although there are many methods on how to approach each scenario, evaluating which one to choose needs to be evaluated and tested.  Because the workers in my organization are able to function well and do what they need to do, no one seems to address the problems until it becomes a bigger issue.  This has been the approach in many organizations I have been in and because of the diversity of the skills and people in the office; these issues are hard to distinguish when the organization is actually successful.

Davenport, T.H. (2005). Thinking for a living: How to get better performance and results from knowledge workers. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Kroenke, D. (2011). Using MIS (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
McNurlin, B.C., Sprague, R.H., Jr., & Bui, T. X. (Eds.). (2009). Information systems management in practice (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ:  Prentice Hall  

Week 3 DQs

Well everyone, now we start learning from each other.  Please do post your DQ thoughts under the proper sub-thread (e.g., Week 3 DQs - DQ1 or Week 3 DQs - DQ2).  Should you not do so, you will be required to repost in order to earn credit.

Be sure to read the requirements for earning full marks, as listed in the syllabus.  Any questions do post them in the Questions thread that I set-up when we started the class.

Week 3 DQs - DQ1

What are the benefits and disbenefits/costs of enabling knowledge workers with applications and access so that they can work 24x7x365 from anywhere?  Use concrete examples such as personal computers and smartphones.

Knowledge workers who work anywhere

• Productivity: working remotely can allow knowledge workers to concentrate on their tasks and objectives.
• Innovation: working remotely can also allow knowledge workers to create something new and innovative when they have the ability to concentrate on their work.
• Costs: costs and time associated with commuting to work can be expensive and timely. Allowing knowledge workers to work remotely can allow them to save money and work longer hours if necessary. For example, every month I pay $240 on commuting costs into work, up to $30 a day on breakfast and lunch expenses, and 3-4 hours commuting to and from work. If I were allowed to work from home every day, I would be saving 15 hours a week that I could be putting into work, and up to $210 a week on food and transportation costs. Not to mention work clothing costs and any miscellaneous costs that might arise.
• Social Networking: workers can still communicate if they have a smart phone or computer. Tools such as Skype, Google Hangout, and Facetime each allow users to contact others using a device’s video camera capabilities.


• Social Networking: lack of social interaction may lead to poor social skills. Things such as personal hygiene, and physical and social behaviors may be lost because there is a lack of interaction.
• Productivity: workers who are disciplined in being productive individually and managing the workflow are needed if working remotely. Home life or personal responsibilities can easily distract a knowledge worker if not disciplined.
• Costs: out of pocket costs on office equipment and technology may be required as part of the initial agreement before compensation will occur. Many employers may reimburse these costs, or the costs may be taxable, but the required costs may be difficult to manage if a worker cannot afford the costs initially. I consider myself a “Tech individualist” (Davenport, 2005, Kindle Locations 653-654) because I tend to be an early adapter with technology, but for others, costs may be too much or unreasonable for the technology needed for specific job tasks.


Davenport, T.H. (2005). Thinking for a living: How to get better performance and results from knowledge workers. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Week 3 DQs - DQ2

Should knowledge workers be allowed to develop their own programs without oversight by a formal IT organization?  From a theoretical perspective discuss the benefits and disbenefits/risks that affect the individual knowledge worker and the organization.  Further embellish your answer using at least one example from your work environment

If an organization wants something new and innovative, sometimes the organization will have to allow knowledge workers to develop their own programs without oversight.  A boss that understands when a developer is the most productive should allow them to work in an environment that makes them feel comfortable and productive (Davenport, 2005).  According to Davenport (2005), most knowledge workers have already achieved autonomy of the ways they are allowed to work in organizations.  Since knowledge workers already have the understanding and expertise in the areas that they function, organizations may allow the knowledge workers to work under the conditions that they choose. 

The benefits of knowledge workers not having any oversight from the organization is that the knowledge workers have the freedom to create ideas without the stress or pressures from the organization.  In my current position, I am a product support technician and I have the ability to suggest new technologies because of my understanding and experience of the industry I work in.   I also help clients to integrate their technology with ours.  Many of the managers do not fully understand the technical capabilities that are available to the organization that creates both productivity and is also cost effective.  So I am there to help them with innovative solutions for their business; however I have proven to be more effective working from home than working in-house because I am also considered to be technical support.  Although technical support is not actually part of my job description, I am one of the few people that the employees are comfortable with for their technical issues, and so this leads to many distractions from my product support technician role when I am in the office.

This also leads into the disadvantages of not having the organization take control over my responsibilities.  Because there are so many objectives in the organization I work for, it can be hard to concentrate on the priorities.  Having the freedom and resources to create innovative solutions is great, but without direction or the latest information from the organization, finding the best solutions for the time can be a bit unnerving in an environment where technology is always evolving.

Davenport, T.H. (2005). Thinking for a living: How to get better performance and results from knowledge workers. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Week 3 Individual (graded)

Week 3 Reflections

In this week, we have taken knowledge workers to the next level.  I have learned that knowledge workers are skilled people in specific industries.  These knowledge workers have the ability to set certain expectations in an organization.  Some of these expectations may support better working methods or innovative products.  They may also be able to work from home or in alternate environments outside of the organization to create the ideas.  This may be necessary also to support the product or idea that is going to be created.  This concept isn’t without its downsides. 

I have also learned that knowledge workers may be unsupervised as well.  In some cases, this may be necessary depending on the type of work that is required to be completed.  Some developers may need a quiet space in order to create a program, for example.  Thus there may be a need for some knowledge workers to be unsupervised for both comfort and creativity.

In my own personal experiences, I have been allowed to work from home to concentrate of specific projects or processes.  One of the projects that I was allowed to assign to myself was to construct a process for testing gaming consoles with my job’s technology so that advertisements can be intricately monitored.  This means that any actions that a user takes on any gaming console can be recorded and reported.  This helps advertisers to understand their audience and only provide them with information that the user would most likely want to see.

These projects are also unsupervised so that I can concentrate on the performance of the data, the machines, and the technology used.  I also write technical documentation with specifications on what is required so that my team can also duplicate the processes.  Because I am not in the office, my co-workers have less of a chance to distract me from my progress.

Week 4 DQs - DQ1

Give examples of trials/experiments that have been shown to change the environment of the worker and affect his/her productivity and job satisfaction.  Discuss the trial/experiment - the intervention (e.g., new application) and the outcome.  Explicitly identify whether IT been a factor in the trials/experiments you have cited.

One example of a trial or experiment that my organization uses is JIRA (Atlassian, 2013), a web-based ticketing system with add-on capabilities. This system has proven to change the work environment substantially by organizing task management, reporting, and productivity.  The way that JIRA works is the user creates a ticket with an issue, bug, enhancement, or otherwise.  The ticket can be assigned to another person to handle.  On the management side, worker’s tasks are monitored.  After a good deal of tickets has been in circulation, reports can be produced and shown to upper management to review productivity and analyze where most of the issues stem from.  Management can then direct workers to concentrate on specific areas if there are any necessary reasons for improvements.  On the worker’s side, the tasks are managed effectively by priority or due date.  This allows the workers to understand the tasks to work on first and have their workflow organized.

On the IT side, this has been a challenge to implement in our organization.  Only a small group of workers are testing out the web software and there are some complications.  One of the complications is getting funding for the technology.  Servers, databases, and knowledge of the programs are needed.  Costs for using JIRA are high for the product and based off the amount of people who need to use it.  In other words, the software is based on the number licenses needed for a specific number of users. The amount of maintenance also is high since JIRA is a system that the organization wants to use to integrate with current systems.  JIRA has the capability to integrate other systems; however there is costs involved with purchasing add-ons and a technical learning curve of JIRA development is needed to successfully integrate everything for the organization.  Database developers may need to understand the technology to make sure that JIRA works well with the other systems that are currently in use.

Atlassian. (2013). Issue & Project Tracking Software | Atlassian JIRA. Retrieved from

Week 4 DQs - DQ2

Discuss how collaborative systems benefit the knowledge worker and the organization.  Give examples from personal experience.  Hint: first define collaborative systems.

A collaborative system allows people to communicate with each other while providing resources and feedback. The collaborative system provides a way for people to share and search for data (Kroenke, 2011). One of the ways that the collaborative system works is through indexing (Kroenke, 2011). Indexing is a way that a technology attempts to go through and catalog the documented data. It is most commonly used with search fields on a website and produces search results. The user enters a word into the search field on a website and search results are produced.

Another way that the collaborative system works is through Real Simple Syndication (RSS) (Kroenke, 2011, p. 341). RSS provides data to a user in different ways: through a RSS reader or through a website. An RSS feed uses a markup language called eXtensible Markup Language (XML). The reader or website can create functions for users to use RSS. The reader allows users to read RSS in a graphical format that is easy to understand. The reader can provide several capabilities, such as receiving incoming news through email. The RSS feed can be integrated onto a website as well. For example, if a user has a recipe website and they would like to share news about supermarkets that sell the ingredients in a little box on that website, that can come from an RSS feed.

A tool that my organization uses is called Confluence (Atlassian, 2013). Confluence is a collaborative web-based software that the organization uses to document processes, definitions, policies, and ideas. This software has many different types of functions, such as blogging, creating pages for groups, posting to an RSS feeds, has a comments area, has a search field, and has add-on capabilities. This web software also is useful to the organization so that the workers can be able to understand the data the same way and avoid misconceptions. If any of the data is outdated or wrong, any user can go into the document and edit it. This sends a notification to the author so that they can verify the information.


Kroenke, D. (2011). Using MIS (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Atlassian. (2013). Team Collaboration Software | Atlassian Confluence - Trusted by Thousands. Retrieved from

Week 4 Team

In this course, you research and write about a topic of interest for the Knowledge Worker Information Systems Literature Review, due in Week Eight, and the Annotated Bibliography, due in Week Six.

Determine which areas of knowledge worker roles and information systems interest your team members. Each team member must select a different topic.

Consider the following suggested topics:

·         Knowledge management value chain
·         Enterprise-wide knowledge management systems
·         Knowledge work systems
·         Intelligent techniques
·         Collaboration tools
·         Learning management systems
·         Knowledge network systems
·         3–D virtualization
·         Data mining
·         Expert systems
·         Intelligent agents
·         Presentation of information by knowledge worker systems
Select, individually, a topic in knowledge worker information systems you may research in greater depth throughout the course.

Write a 600 - to 700 word summary of your topic.

Post your summary to your Learning Team forum by Day 4, addressing the following:

·         Summarize how knowledge worker information systems are used as a resource for the subject.
·         Identify emerging trends in the field and useful sources of information about the subject.

Review and comment on the summary posted by one of your team members.

Discuss emerging trends in the topics other members chose, and recommend useful sources of information about the field.

Coordinate with your team members to ensure each member’s summary is reviewed.

Post your feedback as a reply to the teammate’s summary in the Learning Team forum.

Post your topic summary into your Individual forum as an attachment.

Week 4 Team Assignment

Week 4 Individual (graded)

Week 4 Reflections

In week 4, I have learned several things from my teammates and from the resources I have read about knowledge workers and information systems.  The topic I chose for my summary is something that I didn’t know about.  Intelligent Techniques is my topic.  I learned that intelligent techniques are complex and interesting.  The one thing that interests me the most about intelligent techniques are the ideas that are closely related to artificial intelligence in programming and algorithms for an environment.  My teammates also wrote about several interesting ideas from the topics they chose.  I particularly favor 3D virtualization, especially because of my interest in 3D ideas and concepts in video games and new technology creations.  Mainly the ideas from modeling an environment seems fascinating to me.

Other things that I have learned this week include information on collaborative tools that some people may attempt to use in organizations, and how those tools influence the structure of an organization as well as the worker’s perspectives.  Much of the feedbacks from these types of tools are important to share within an organization for communication and management purposes (Kroenke, 2011).  Another thing I learned is that experimenting with new tools can have many benefits and negatives in an organization.  One of the discussions I frequently see is the pro/con with mobile security.  I agree with many of the perspectives where security can be a major issue in mobile devices, but that would never prevent me from using it.

Kroenke, D. (2011). Using MIS (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Week 5 DQs - DQ1

Discuss how the speed, accuracy/clarity and availability of communications affects the safety, and risks of firemen/women and the people they serve.  Hint:  To focus your thinking, consider the operational aspects of a fire department’s activities.
Many lives may be at stake when a fire occurs or when a building collapses.  The firefighters and the people they serve are also at risk.   With such high risks, the technology that the people and firefighters use can be a vital part of their survival. 

Since the attack on 9/11 and the blackout in 2003 on the east coast, the New York City has changed many of their emergency processes and systems.  So when a person makes a phone call in the case of a fire, they need to dial 911.  The technology, whether it is a cell phone or landline telephone, that people use is the first element of communicating to the 911-dispatch department, which is part of the New York Police Department (NYPD), to find out which department needs to be contacted. 

Dialing 911 is partially an automated system.  The operator who handles the call will ask questions before contacting the appropriate department.  While the operator is speaking with the person on the phone, the nearest available fire department is contacted if the call is validated through the series of questions asked by the operator.  Although this may not be the quickest way to get the fire department, it is necessary for dispatch to understand the circumstances before the fire department travels to a location that may be fraudulent or unnecessary. 
After the 2003 blackout on the east coast, the NYPD realized that there were several technical issues with the 911 systems.  Many of these processes were analyzed and restructured.  As a result, many of the systems also were replaced.  The equipment that 911-dispatch now uses should identify the caller and the caller’s location when 911 is dialed and handles 50,000 calls per hour (NYPD, 2012).  The police officers and the dispatch are now on the same floor to open lines of communication with each other.

From dealing with the attack on 9/11, the fire department also has mandated certain precautions.  Many buildings are now required to “meet fire resistance rating requirements” (NYPD, 2009, p. 61) and practice evacuation procedures, which are outlined and regulated by the New York Fire Department (FDNY).  The office building I work in does a quarterly fire drill and checks all of the systems monthly, including the loud speakers, alarms, emergency lights, and evacuation facilities, to make sure that everything are in working order.  The FDNY often visits and inspects buildings to make sure that everything meets their standards.

Communication systems are to be in working order at all times in the case of an emergency, especially in large buildings.  Both the NYPD and FDNY also learned to regularly test all communication devices after many of their devices failed on 9/11 (NYPD, 2009).  Many of the large buildings already have communication devices for the FDNY to utilize in the case of an emergency (NYPD, 2009).  So regular inspections across the board throughout the city is a necessary element in making sure to meet any emergencies through the technology they use.

NYPD. (2012). Press Release | Public Safety Answering Center. Retrieved from

Week 5 DQs - DQ2

Discuss how the speed, accuracy/clarity and availability of communications affects the profitability, and risks associated with the securities industry (i.e., stock brokers) and its retail customers.  Hint:  To focus your thinking, consider the operational aspects of a stockbroker’s activities.  What advantages do and might wireless technologies bring to this community?  

Operational aspects of a stockbroker’s activities
Stockbroker activities are important to those who wish to buy and sell stocks, and deal in investments. They are important to the economy as it involves the financial markets. Stockbrokers also use systems to evaluate some of the financial assessments that are made (Zopounidis, 2006). These systems help to make decisions on the financial choices that are made and provide solutions that can be evaluated through an analysis process (Zopounidis, 2006).

One of the risks associated with stockbrokers is that the stockbrokers handle sensitive information to make these transactions occur. Mutual funds or bonds all have information pertaining to the user’s account and possibly sensitive data such as address, account information, and other personal information. So there is a potential for misuse of this sensitive information if the stockbroker is unethical or if there is a fault in the system.

Although there are some risks involved, there is much profitability to be had from stockbroker activity. Transactions from organizations to individuals supply financial support and help industries and organizations to grow and expand. This in turn helps to support economic growth.

Wireless Technology Advantages
Stockbrokers can use wireless technology to keep abreast of the most recent transactions or financial statuses of an organization or industry. Many applications for wireless devices have capabilities such as stock tickers, informative stock news, and the latest stock trends and technology. Programs that find information about the latest trends also help with productivity and efficiency (Gordon, Fan, & Pathak, 2006). This type of technology has sophisticated algorithms to help user’s derive information onto their wireless devices that are applicable to the user’s needs.

Although wireless technology is a great resource for the stockbroker, it is also a high-risk factor for the possibility of loosing important information. As Satyanarayanan (1997) suggests, a stockbroker has higher chances of getting a wireless device stolen than a desktop. Because wireless technology is more prevalent in the recent years, the likeliness of a cell phone getting stolen is possible.


Gordon, M., Fan, W.P., Pathak, P. (2006). Adaptive Web Search: Evolving a Program That Finds Information. IEEE Intelligent Systems, 21 (5) pp. 72-77

M. Satyanarayanan. (1997). Mobile computing: Where's the tofu?. SIGMOBILE Mob. Comput. Commun. 1(1), pp. 17-21. DOI: 10.1145/583973.583980 

Zopounidis, C. (2006). The use of multicriteria knowledge-based systems in financial risk management. Operational Research,6(2), 197-219. doi:

Week 5 Team

Research the area of knowledge worker information systems you selected in Week Four.

Create a reference page that identifies at least 10 sources you may incorporate in the paper. Share your results with your Learning Team.

Review each team member’s reference page.

Provide feedback to one of your teammates. Complete the following:

·         Recommend APA formatting corrections.
·         Share your insights on identified sources.
·         Recommend at least one additional scholarly article about your team member’s field that does not appear on his or her reference page.

Coordinate with your team members to ensure each member receives feedback.

Post your reference page with the additional recommended source from your Learning Team to your Individual forum

In this week, I learned about the multiple perspectives and uses of technology in different environments. One of the things I learned is that because the New York 911-dispatch needed to communicate closely with both the police department and the fire departments, the dispatch and police department floors were merged to handle emergencies more efficiently, and 911-dispatch received newer more intelligent technology to support the needs of the emergencies and communication.

Another thing I learned is that the technology used is imperative to the responsibilities in these positions. Communication devices are vital in emergencies. Also all the inspection of the communication device policies were only recently established because there was no evidence or need until the attack on 9/11 and the northeast blackout in 2003 to have some of these precautions in place.

There are also several advantages and disadvantages with mobile devices that I had not considered before with each environment. Mobile thefts, security, organizational policies, and ethics are some of the disadvantages I learned about this week. Some of the advantages of mobile devices are quick access to information, mobility, and increased revenues.

Other considerations include governmental and political perspectives of how the mobile devices and data should or should not be maintained and controlled. Although I am not into politics, the idea of the government controlling the data I have access to would be discouraging. Depending on the ethical standards of an organization, the organization can create methods to prevent unwanted data from being used on the devices but that would take time, cost, and effort into enforcing those policies. 

I still think that the item that caused me the most shock to learn about is that many devices did not work during the attack on 9/11 because there was no strict policy in place to make sure there was a preemptive measure. The mere idea of being in the emergency field should ideally have safeguards or likewise in place in the case that a walkie-talkie or other device stops working.

Week 6 DQs - DQ1

Compare the different characteristics of data needed for Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) and Online Transaction Processing (OLTP).  Give practical examples of use in the business/government environments.  Hint:  Define OLAP and OLTP from a practical perspective

Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) “provides the ability to sum, count, average, and perform other simple arithmetic operations on groups of data” (Kroenke, 2011, p. 326). This data is auto-populated in OLAP reports and accessible to online users so that they can manipulate the views of the data to meet their needs (Kroenke, 2011). The data is also measurable and suitable for reports to show information in an organized manner. Kroenke (2011) mention a sales report as an example to show worth and the importance of organized data.

Online Transaction Processing (OLTP) is data that is collected and managed in a database or file for use with reports, such as OLAP reports, so it can be organized in a way that businesses can understand (Sen & Sinha, 2005). Sen and Sinha (2005) mention using a database for managing the data. An organization may have different uses for how the data needs to be stored and therefore there are different database management or data warehousing methodologies that can be followed (Sen & Sinha, 2005). Data warehousing methodologies help to define how data should be organized and processed. It consists of design, implementation, and deployment phases (Sen & Sinha, 2005).

In the organization I work for, we collect information from video and banner advertisements for the clients. This information consists of when a user clicks on a video and banner, when the video loaded, when the video or banner began or appears, how much of the video was watched, and other instances. My organization uses several different databases to track the information for that the clients can get the most data for their money. One of the smaller databases used is our SQL server database that captures a small amount of data specifically to help generate reports. This database keeps the information organized. We then have a website for clients or sales to collect the data from the database in a format that can be exported and formatted in Excel.


Kroenke, D. (2011). Using MIS (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. 

Sen, A. & Sinha, A. P. (2005). A comparison of data warehousing methodologies. Communications of the ACM , 48(3), 79.

Week 6 DQs - DQ2

What are some of the ethical, legal and regulatory issues concerning search?  And what are the characteristics of the search techniques used by engines such as Google and Yahoo?

Search engines may need to undergo ethical evaluation. According to Elgesem (2008), because search engines are so often used and used for researching information for work or school, search engines should “have moral obligations to their users” (p. 233). The ideas behind the ethics of using search engines may stem from when a user enters a keyword into the field and gets unexpected results. Users trust search engines to provide information that is being requested through the use of keywords (Elgesem, 2008). The question that Elgesem (2008) asks is what the scope should be on the ethics of search engines.

According to Gürkaynak, 
Yilmaz, and Durlu (2013), several governments are looking into ways to regulate content and evaluate legalities with several countries to prohibit some of the content on search engines. Since the data comes from sources around the world, laws on internet access and data vary from country to country. There are concerns surrounding “data protection,2trademark3 and copyright infringement,4 consumer protection, competition law, and free speech” (Gürkaynak, Yilmaz, & Durlu, 2013).

Although I agree with the perspective that search engines should have a filtering system or ethical processes, I also believe that many search engines already have filtering tools for moderating the content so that the users can control what type of search results they should expect to see, but users may not recognize these capabilities. Google (2013) is a search engine example that uses preferences for search results that could stay within range of the keyword the user is looking for. Google (2013) names the filter to restrict or prohibit inappropriate content “SafeSearch” (Google, 2013). SafeSearch also allows users to report content that is not appropriate to the keyword search or contains the inappropriate content.

Google (2013) additionally has keyword operators and Boolean terms to specify results. Boolean terms, such as ANDand OR, may be used to specify results in the user’s search. When a user enters a minus sign before a keyword, that keyword should not appear in the search results. In an example of the keyword search “gown -wedding”, the wordwedding should not appear in the search results. Also if measurements or conversions are necessary, a user can enter the term using the word “to”. So if a user wants to know the conversation about between 1 ounce and a pound, the user would enter “1 oz to lb” and get the results “1 oz = 0.0625 pound”. Other search engines, such as Yahoo, also have many of the same capabilities as Google with a SafeSearch and keyword operators.


Elgesem, D. (2008). Search engines and the public use of reason. Ethics and Information Technology, 10(4), 233-242. doi:

Google. (2013). SafeSearch: Turn on or off. Retrieved from

Google. (2013). Search operators. Retrieved from

Gürkaynak, G., Yilmaz, I., & Durlu, D. (2013). Understanding search engines: A legal perspective on liability in the Internet law vista, Computer Law & Security Review, 29(1), 40-47, doi:10.1016/j.clsr.2012.11.009

Week 6 Reflections

In this week I have learned several perspectives on data processing and analysis, the possible uses of the data, and the legalities that may occur on the data retrieval methods. One of the data processing methods that I learned about is Online Analytical Processing (OLAP). Before this course, I was unfamiliar with OLAP. I learned not only what OLAP is about but I also learned about the relationship between OLAP and Online Transaction Processing (OLTP). Using these two processes can provide data to an organization in different ways depending on the need (Kroenke, 2011). An organization can use OLAP data to create reports that can be filtered by the user online (Kroenke, 2011). The process that is related to OLAP is OLTP. OLTP collects and maintains data to be stored in a database (Sen & Sinha, 2005). 

Another idea I learned this week involves search engine perspectives on legalities. Search engines can retrieve a lot of information and there can be legalities associated with the content. One perspective is that the content may be imposing on someone’s rights to privacy. Another perspective is creative copyrights or trademarks. Each of these perspectives could lead to theft of one’s privacy or trademarked material.

There are also ethical perspectives on search engines. Search engines have the ability to display information quickly and users may need to filter some of the information so that they can only obtain what is necessary, however there is so much data that goes through a search engine that there are also trust issues on the content that is being received. An example is what a user is search for content and the results that the user expects to see do not appear or contains explicit data. The government is still trying to regulate much of the data on search engines and this may impose on the rights of the users (Gürkaynak, Yilmaz, & Durlu, 2013).


Gürkaynak, G., Yilmaz, I., & Durlu, D. (2013). Understanding search engines: A legal perspective on liability in the Internet law vista, Computer Law & Security Review, 29(1), 40-47, doi:10.1016/j.clsr.2012.11.009

Kroenke, D. (2011). Using MIS (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. 

Sen, A. & Sinha, A. P. (2005). A comparison of data warehousing methodologies. Communications of the ACM , 48(3), 79.

Week 7 DQs - DQ1

What are the most important differences between wired and wireless applications, compute platforms, networking and security? Hint: Identify the characteristics of each platform for wired and mobile workers. Subsequently compare the differences using at least one example of a mobile worker situation and a situation for a worker who is not mobile.
Wired and Wireless Applications
Wired and wireless applications can differ depending on the device. A wireless application on a cell phone may have several similarities and differences from a wired application such as a desktop computer. Many wireless devices have applications that can do basic functionalities of what the full program on a desktop can do. On the other hand, if the wireless device is a laptop, the desktop applications may be identical.

Computer platforms
A computer platform is an operating system or architecture that can be run on a device to perform specific functions. A platform is used to run software or applications on a device. Some common computer platforms are Windows 8, Mac OS X, and Linux.

Networking and Security
Networking is a connection of computer systems that can communicate with each other. These computer systems can consist of servers, databases, and other devices so that each system can derive information from each other. Computer security can very in protection methods. A network can have a firewall for protection against hackers or malicious content. Anti-virus programs can also be installed both locally on a user’s computer and on a network. Usernames and Passwords offer account-specific security (Kroeke, 2011). Backup systems are a way of securing data in multiple locations (Kroeke, 2011). The Internet has secure protocols, such as https and sftp (Kroeke, 2011).

The differences between each of these concepts vary. The most important difference between each of these concepts is security. From time to time, I work from home. As a mobile worker, I am provided with a laptop to use. I catered my laptop at home to be just as good, if not better, than my laptop at work so I have the capability to work with the same applications. Although my computer has the same software, there is a concern about security. If I am traveling and I need Internet access, I may need to go on hotel wifi networks. This may cause my laptop to be at risk of several potential security risks. Even if I have malware protection and anti-virus programs, there isn’t much to prevent a hacker from running a network sniffer to monitor network activity, no matter the platform, unless the user is on a secure protocol and even then there are ways around it.
When I am not at home, I am less at risk because the network is wired and only employees can get into the system usually.  One of the ways an outsider might get access is if a workstation is unattended and unlocked.  Typically people cannot get into an office without going through security in New York City, so the risk is a little bit lower for that but it is not impossible to bypass security.

Kroenke, D. (2011). Using MIS (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. 

Week 7 DQs - DQ2

Compare knowledge sharing tools (e.g., blogs, newsgroups, and collaborative databases [e.g., Niku’s Clarity and IBM’s Lotus Notes]) with social networking tools (e.g., MySpace and Facebook) from the impact they have on business, the public sector and academia.  Hint:  Identify some of the technical differences but focus on the business and social consequences/impacts.

Knowledge sharing tools are used as collaboration tools so that people with similar goals or interests can communicate with each other through a network. These tools may be blogs or knowledgebase forums and may contain an extensive amount of data or not. Knowledge sharing tools can help or hinder a business, the public sector, and academia depending on its usage. The tools can help these sectors by providing information to others, such as definitions or processes that may be necessary in an organization. On the other hand, if the information is sensitive organizational data or complaints about an organization, this data may hinder the organization. Blogs, newsgroups, and other similar websites have the capability to house not only information but also replies from other users. The information and replies may need to be monitored or private for security or control reasons. The data on these websites may also be regarded as recommended data sources since the information may be coming from an organization or internal source who proves the data to be accurate or not.

In the organization I work for, we use a tool called Confluence to share documentation. We also use Google Docs as a way to communicate internally as well. Google Docs has the capability to allow users to post comments so other users can view the information. The information can also be shared amongst users and the administrator of the account can also allow editing rights. 

Social networking tools uses Web 2.0 technology and allows users to connect with each other who has similar goals or interests but communicate by typically writing smaller amounts of data and posting multimedia. Although there are capabilities to write larger amounts of data on the websites, only a small portion is typically displayed. Websites such as Twitter, MySpace, and Facebook are social networking tools and can connect with knowledge sharing tools for elaboration. These social networking tool websites are typically used for personal use, but organizations can make profile pages as well. These websites can also be monitored and private so only certain responses are displayed. Organizations can use social networking tools for advertising, viral marketing, or getting feedback from users (Kroenke, 2011). The quality of the website information is typically not regarded as recommended data sources since the data comes from other users. An organization may not share this data internally as it may be used to get public feedback.

Kroenke, D. (2011). Using MIS (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Week 7 Reflections

In this week, I have learned a few things involving the different perspectives of wireless and wired devices, security issues and risks, networking and systems comparisons, and different perspectives as it relates to organizations. One of the more interesting perspectives on wireless devices and security consist of Bluetooth capabilities and the risks of using it. I am reminded of the Bluetooth headset that I use practically every day to speak with clients or other co-workers around the global and the security risks it might pose. Since Bluetooth is a wireless protocol (Kroenke, 2011), there may very well be security risks and interceptions. 

Another idea that I had not considered is copper theft. Another classmate suggested that copper theft is also a security concern to consider. I had not even heard of the term until I saw that post so that was interesting to learn about. In addition to copper theft, I also learned basically what wireless radio data is, how it works, what the vulnerabilities are, and the risks associated with it.

I have also learned about different knowledge sharing tools, social networking tools, and how they relate to each other from other classmates. I find it interesting that one of my other classmates has similar interests as I do in a video game company (Bioware), and that Twitter and Facebook have so many users. I had a hunch that these sites would have hundreds of users, but I had no idea that Twitter has 500k+ (, 2013) and Facebook more than a billion (Grandoni, 2012), which I learned from the same classmate. 

As I continue to work on my literature review about intelligent techniques, I also continue to learn about what it is and how it is used.


Grandoni, D. (2012). Facebook has 1 billion users, Mark Zuckerberg announces in a status update. Retrieved from

Kroenke, D. (2011). Using MIS (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. (2013). Twitter Statistics | Statistic Brain. Retrieved from

Week 8 DQs - DQ1

Imagine a small manufacturing company with representatives in the field who currently fax handwritten orders.  Discuss some of the steps that you would take that would enable them to move from batch processing (in which overnight faxes are processed in the morning) to real-time submission of orders and 24x7 communication with the home office for all their transactions.  Additionally mention some of the problems you might have to face.  Note that I am interested in your thinking rather than your citing the work of others.  Therefore, you need not use references to support your arguments; there will be no penalties for not using references in this DQ.

Much of this is dependent on the organization and its needs. The first thing I would probably do is an evaluation of the current process and goals. I would find out who handles these processes, get feedback on what the employees do and what they would want to see, or how they would like to handle the process if it was real-time, find out what the organization wants/goals, and then announce to the organization/stakeholders that the process may change using the derived feedback and requirements. 

A collection of requirements from the staff and managers may be necessary to understand what content is in the faxes and create a database that will handle the information. The faxes can either be sent to a database in a proprietary format, a PDF, or deciphered using a program. This is dependent on what the organization needs. Development of in-house software or websites also may be necessary.

There are different routes the order can be received in and this is dependent on whether or not a signature is required.

Route #1: Set up a phone line to connect to a computer to send and receive faxes.
Route #2: Receive faxes through the Internet.
Route #3: Receive orders through website.

There are different types of technology to handle the data. Development may be necessary in each of these scenarios because staff may need access to databases through a UI.

Type #1: Setup a program that manages faxes into a database. Faxes can be stored in the database as a PDF or other readable document. This scenario would be necessary if a signature is required to be on file.
Type #2: Faxes can go through an optical character recognition (OCR) or a handwriting recognition (HWR) program. The program then inputs the data and/or faxes into a database.
Type #3: A website is developed to handle all orders. Credit card information undergoes verification and goes through a secure protocol.

There are several problems when working remotely. The Internet, phone line, or electricity can go down, computer issues may arise, and faxes may not come through. There are also additional costs involving the purchasing/maintenance of equipment, development/maintenance of databases, websites, and/or software needed.

Week 8 DQs - DQ2

From your perspective (experience and research) discuss the reasons why ERP implementations have failed to achieve the level of success expected by senior management.  Present one case to substantiate your argument.  Hint:  consider elements of success such as costs, functionality, quality of the implementation, schedule and adoption rate.

Enterprise resource planning (ERP) does not sound like they are very flexible systems. ERP systems contain predefined functions and appear to be generally aimed at enterprise level information systems (Kroenke, 2011). ERP systems also are mainly used with manufacturing companies (Kroenke, 2011). 

Costs are high due to the technology used as well as the ability to keep the processes, data, and employees marketable and up-to-date (Kroenke, 2011). Because there also are so many processes, these processes can be costly to implement. Additionally, these processes also may take a long time to implement and the organization may be loosing money while they are waiting for the implementation of the process. For example, if an employee is getting trained, it is possible that two employees are not doing their work because one has to train the other in a process.

The functions of ERP systems consist of monitoring all transaction-type data, such as clients, inventory, orders, staff, and accounting processes (Kroenke, 2011). The focus of the industry also is making sure all resources and products are accounted for. There are several processes that account for the functionality and can often be slow (Kroenke, 2011). The organization uses ERP systems to evaluate what is needed in the organization, attempt to find the appropriate process that meets the needs of the organization, and then data is stored into database processes, but the process to proceed is often slow and can be challenging to implement (Kroenke, 2011).

Because the processes are slow, the quality may be worth the wait. Creating systems, processes, and relationships with the organization and customers may prove to bring in more quality systems; however these processes are “cross-functional” (Kroenke, 2011, p. 237) and can be used in several departments of an organization. Therefore the quality of the processes may be highly recommended for many organizations looking for this functionality.

Kroenke, D. (2011). Using MIS (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. 

Week 8 Individual (graded)

Week 8 Reflections

In this week, I have learned several perspectives on how my classmates would approach a batch process into a real-time process. Although fax processes appear like an obsolete tool to use, I think there are still some uses for it or at the very least different ways to fax documents and still have these forms of information useful. As I mentioned in my post, I think that using faxes may still be necessary for some organizations that have not yet moved over to digital signatures. Although that is something that can help with the real-time process, there are other ways, such as creating websites or using automatic recognition programs.

I also appreciate the mention of a quality assurance (QA) process. Often times this process is forgotten or underutilized. In my current organization, the QA team is a vital part of our business in making sure that developers continue to develop and not QA their own work, thus wasting time on development.

I have also learned what an ERP is, some of the different ideas on how ERPs are used, and perspectives of how ERPs are not very likeable system processes. Although ERPs are slow to acclimate to, ERPs seem to have inherent business standards that should make the process quicker; however that is not the case and ERPs can additionally be costly (Kroenke, 2011).

I additionally have learned about intelligent techniques and its concepts. Intelligent techniques are based on ideas from artificial intelligence (AI) (Mohanty et al., 2010; Rashidinejad et al., 2008). There are also several branches under intelligent techniques, such as fuzzy logic, expert systems, and decision-making theories (Mohanty et al., 2010). These concepts help to create programs that would appear as if it is thinking and making decisions. Robots, web personalization, and sophisticated monitoring systems each use the concepts from intelligent techniques to create programs that analyze an environment and create decisions.

On a side note, I will be takes a short break from classes as I am getting married next month. I just wanted to say that I wish everyone here the best and I will miss reading and learning from all of your viewpoints. See you at the finish line!

Kroenke, D. (2011). Using MIS (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. 

Mohanty R., Ravi, V., & Patra, M.R. (2010). Web-services classification using intelligent techniques. Expert Systems with Applications, 37(7), 5484–5490. doi: 10.1016/j.eswa.2010.02.063.

Rashidinejad, M., Farahmand, H., Fotuhi-Firuzabad, M., & Gharaveisi, A.A. (2008). ATC enhancement using TCSC via artificial intelligent techniques. Electric Power Systems Research, 78(1), 11-20. doi: 10.1016/j.epsr.2006.12.005.

Grade Report: IST/721

Grade Summary (Week 1-Week 8)

Grade: A-
Total Percentage:92.65%
Your Total Score:92.65
Total Possible Score:100

Week 8

Possible ScoreYour Score
Alex, even though your post touched upon other topics, I would like to comment
 on DQ1.  What surprises me the most is that the majority of students leapt to a
 technical solution without understanding all the dimensions attendant to the
 problem.  And, to be frank, that is a sad situation since at this stage of
 education I would think, and hope, that they examine problems rather than
 jumping to technical solutions without understanding the ramifications of those
Alex, superb job.  Thank you.  Hopefully you learned from the postings, as did
Literature Review16.015.4
Alex, do see my comments on your attached paper.
Week 8 Subtotal :2221.4
Cumulative Week 8 Subtotal :10092.65
Week 8 Feedback:
Alex, congratulations.  I enjoyed having you in the class and wish you good
 fortune as you move towards your degree.

Week 7

Possible ScoreYour Score
Alex, indeed the statistics on the number of social networking accounts is
 staggering.  Yet with respect to social networking, we still have quite a bit
 to learn how the technologies can be successfully and usefully applied by any
 enterprise (private and public sector entities).  All I have been able to
 discern is that the culture of the enterprise has, thus far, determined how the
 technologies are used and whether value is derived.  Much trial and error
 trials remain to be accomplished.  As for your grade for the Reflections, you
 did not meet the minimum word count.
Alex, appropriate and contributory postings.  Thank you.  Do keep up your high
 level of effort on the DQs.
Week 7 Subtotal :65.2
Cumulative Week 7 Subtotal :7871.25
Week 7 Feedback:
Alex, very good.  You are hitting an A-.  Please do maintain your focus and
 level of effort.

Week 6

Possible ScoreYour Score
Alex, you touched upon a few of the topics we covered during the week.  Good.
 The issues surrounding privacy of information that is gleaned from users by
 search engines is becoming more and more complex.  Personally, the mere fact
 that Facebook sends out notices to me saying that others want to friend me goes
 beyond the pale.  I have emailed a few acquaintances who said they never asked
 me to friend them on Facebook.  This invasion of personal privacy is why I do
 not even open Facebook and have not done so for several years.
Alex, very well done.  Thanks for your contributions to the discussions.
Annotated Bibliography8.08.0
Alex, please do see my comments on the attached annotated bibliography.
Week 6 Subtotal :1414
Cumulative Week 6 Subtotal :7266.05
Week 6 Feedback:
Alex, you continue to do quite well and are hitting an A-.  For details
 underlying my comments, do see the Reflections, DQs and annotated bibliography.

Week 5

Possible ScoreYour Score
Alex, no references were cited and I had to nick your grade accordingly.  With
 respect to communications problems amongst different agencies, progress has
 been made but much work remains to be done.  Early this spring we had a search
 for a missing six year old and the Department of Public Safety rotary wing Bell
 Rangers could not communicate with the Army Blackhawks.  Dangerous situation,
 especially since they were flying in close proximity to one another and could
 only communicate through the Incident Command Post.
Alex, even though you made eight posts, the net was that one post still did not
 meet the word count requirements.  What you did post ws, however, contributory
 to the discussions.  Thank you.
Huffman Trucking12.011.3
Alex, do see my comments on the attached.
Resource Identification3.03.0
Alex, nicely done all around.  I look forward to reading your Week 8 literature
Week 5 Subtotal :2119.85
Cumulative Week 5 Subtotal :5852.05
Week 5 Feedback:
Alex, good work.  Your projected grade for the class improved to an A-.  For
 details of my comments see the Reflections, DQs, LT assignment and paper.  Any
 questions do get back to me.

Week 4

Possible ScoreYour Score
Weekly Reflections2.01.2
Alex, you will undoubtedly find that the majority of the issues surrounding
 implementation of a new collaborative system, or for that matter most systems,
 has to do more with the organization rather than technology.  What I mean is
 that the majority of the most crucial decisions depend upon people and their
 desire for power and acknowledgement.  Technology is certainly critical but in
 terms of whether to use one technology or another is of lesser importance than
 satisfying their personal priorities.  With respect to your grade for this
 posting, you did not meet the minimum word requirements.
Alex, please do try and give more attention and time to your DQ postings.  Three
 of your postings did not meet the requirements as stated in the syllabus.
Topic Summary10.09.4
Alex, do see my comments on your paper, which is attached.
Alex, very nicely done.  You commented on works of your colleagues, your draft
 was submitted on time and you met the minimum word count.
Week 4 Subtotal :1916.85
Cumulative Week 4 Subtotal :3732.2
Week 4 Feedback:
Alex, you are doing OK (B+) but I am confident that you can do better.  Should
 you have any concerns do get back to me in your Individual Forum.

Week 3

Possible ScoreYour Score
Weekly Reflections2.01.8
Alex, before I comment on your posting I urge you to reread the requirements to
 earn full marks for Reflections.  From your posting, you are part of a virtual
 team.  That certainly gives you significant flexibility and does allow you to
 better concentrate on the tasks at hand.  From an academic perspective, working
 in a virtual environment as part of a team can be challenging.  Yet you appear
 to have the proper processes, tools and technology to make your virtual team
 work.  It was not that many years ago when we did not have the technology.
 Thus in my day working from home was neither culturally permissible nor
 technologically feasible.
Alex, please do re-read the requirements stated in the syllabus.  Overall, your
 postings did not meet the minimums necessary to earn full marks for the
 postings.  Should you have any questions, do lets continue to discuss what is
Knowledge Worker10.08.3
Alex, please do read my detailed comments on your attached paper.
Week 3 Subtotal :1613.35
Cumulative Week 3 Subtotal :1815.35
Week 3 Feedback:
Alex, for details of my feedback on your Reflections, DQs and paper, do see the
 comments on each deliverable.  I have confidence that your grade will improve.
 Should you have any questions and/or concerns do get back to me.

Week 2

Possible ScoreYour Score
Weekly Reflections2.02.0
Alex, well done!  Your post hit three important topics.  I shall only comment on
 the first one  Ethics in Organizations.  Ethics are a personal hot button for
 me, so much so that my wife and I created and sponsor a program in applied
 ethics at Cornell University.  Over my business career I have been faced with
 several ethical situations.  With only one exception, I held true to my ethical
 standards and made the correct ethical decision.  One situation, while I was at
 American Express, cost me my job but I would again make the same decision.  I
 do expect that we will touch upon ethics in this course and if we do so, I will
 go into detail on the consequences of my decision.
Week 2 Subtotal :22
Cumulative Week 2 Subtotal :22
Week 2 Feedback:
Alex, no feedback other than what I provided in my response to your Reflections.

Week 1

Possible ScoreYour Score
Weekly Reflections2.02.0
Alex, well done!  Your post hit three important topics.  I shall only comment on
 the first one  Ethics in Organizations.  Ethics are a personal hot button for
 me, so much so that my wife and I created and sponsor a program in applied
 ethics at Cornell University.  Over my business career I have been faced with
 several ethical situations.  With only one exception, I held true to my ethical
 standards and made the correct ethical decision.  One situation, while I was at
 American Express, cost me my job but I would again make the same decision.  I
 do expect that we will touch upon ethics in this course and if we do so, I will
 go into detail on the consequences of my decision.
Week 1 Subtotal :

Cumulative Week 1 Subtotal :

Week 1 Feedback: